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Sfeir MM. 2018. Burkholderia cepacia complex infections: More complex than the bacterium name suggest. J Infect 77:166–170. Link to the article

Mahenthiralingam E, Urban TA, Goldberg JB. 2005. The multifarious, multireplicon Burkholderia cepacia complex. Nat Rev 3:144–156.

Valvano MA. 2015. Intracellular survival of Burkholderia cepacia complex in phagocytic cells. Can J Microbiol 1–9.

Vial L, Chapalain A, Groleau MC, Deziel E. 2011. The various lifestyles of the Burkholderia cepacia complex species: a tribute to adaptation. Environ Microbiol 13:1–12.

Sousa SA, Feliciano JR, Pita T, Guerreiro SI, Leitão JH. 2017. Burkholderia cepacia Complex Regulation of Virulence Gene Expression: A Review. Genes 8.


Glowicz J, Crist M, Gould C, Moulton-Meissner H, Noble-Wang J, de Man TJB, Perry KA, Miller Z, Yang WC, Langille S, Ross J, Garcia B, Kim J, Epson E, Black S, Pacilli M, LiPuma JJ, Fagan R, B. cepacia Investigation Workgroup. 2018. A multistate investigation of health care-associated Burkholderia cepacia complex infections related to liquid docusate sodium contamination, January-October 2016. Am J Infect Control 46:649–655.

Brooks RB, Mitchell PK, Miller JR, Vasquez AM, Havlicek J, Lee H, Quinn M, Adams E, Baker D, Greeley R, Ross K, Daskalaki I, Walrath J, Moulton-Meissner H, Crist MB, Burkholderia cepacia Workgroup. 2018. Multistate Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Bloodstream Infections After Exposure to Contaminated Saline Flush Syringes – United States, 2016-2017. Clin Infect Dis Off Publ Infect Dis Soc Am.

Becker SL, Berger FK, Feldner SK, Karliova I, Haber M, Mellmann A, Schäfers H-J, Gärtner B. 2018. Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex infections associated with contaminated octenidine mouthwash solution, Germany, August to September 2018. Euro Surveill Bull Eur Sur Mal Transm Eur Commun Dis Bull 23.

Akinboyo IC, Sick-Samuels AC, Singeltary E, Fackler J, Ascenzi J, Carroll KC, Maldonado Y, Brooks RB, Benowitz I, Wilson LE, LiPuma JJ, Milstone AM. 2018. Multistate Outbreak of an Emerging Burkholderia cepacia Complex Strain Associated With Contaminated Oral Liquid Docusate Sodium. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 39:237–239.

Abdallah M, Abdallah HA, Memish ZA. 2018. Burkholderia cepacia complex outbreaks among non-cystic fibrosis patients in the intensive care units: A review of adult and pediatric literature. Infez Med Riv Period Eziologia Epidemiol Diagn Clin E Ter Delle Patol Infett 26:299–307.

Marquez L, Jones KN, Whaley EM, Koy TH, Revell PA, Taylor RS, Bernhardt MB, Wagner JL, Dunn JJ, LiPuma JJ, Campbell JR. 2017. An Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Infections Associated with Contaminated Liquid Docusate. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 38:567–573. Link to the article

Cunha BA, Gian J, Dieguez B, Santos-Cruz E, Matassa D, Gerson S, Daniels P, Rosales C, Silletti RP. 2016. Burkholderia contaminans Colonization from Contaminated Liquid Docusate (Colace) in a Immunocompetent Adult with Legionnaire’s Disease: Infection Control Implications and the Potential Role of Candida pellucosa. J Clin Med 5. Link to the article

Wang L, Wang M, Zhang J, Wu W, Lu Y, Fan Y. 2015. An outbreak of Burkholderia stabilis colonization in a nasal ward. Int J Infect Dis IJID Off Publ Int Soc Infect Dis 33:71–74. Link to the article

Singhal T, Shah S, Naik R. 2015. Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteremia in a chemotherapy day care unit due to intrinsic contamination of an antiemetic drug. Indian J Med Microbiol 33:117–119. Link to the article

Nannini EC, Ponessa A, Muratori R, Marchiaro P, Ballerini V, Flynn L, Limansky AS. 2015. Polyclonal outbreak of bacteremia caused by Burkholderia cepacia complex and the presumptive role of ultrasound gel. Braz J Infect Dis Off Publ Braz Soc Infect Dis 19:543–545.

Ko S, An H-S, Bang JH, Park S-W. 2015. An outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia complex pseudobacteremia associated with intrinsically contaminated commercial 0.5% chlorhexidine solution. Am J Infect Control 43:266–268. Link to the article

Hauser N, Orsini J. 2015. Cepacia Syndrome in a Non-Cystic Fibrosis Patient. Case Rep Infect Dis 2015:537627.

Cases of successful treatment

Tamma PD, Fan Y, Bergman Y, Sick-Samuels AC, Hsu AJ, Timp W, Simner PJ, Prokesch BC, Greenberg DE. 2018. Successful Treatment of Persistent Burkholderia cepacia Complex Bacteremia with Ceftazidime-Avibactam. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 62. Link to the article

Garcia BA, Carden JL, Goodwin DL, Smith TA, Gaggar A, Leon K, Antony VB, Rowe SM, Solomon GM. 2018. Implementation of a successful eradication protocol for Burkholderia Cepacia complex in cystic fibrosis patients. BMC Pulm Med 18. Link to the article

Nimri L, Mamuno S, and Osama BH. 2017. “Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Burkholderia cepacia Complex in Patients with No Underlying Risk Factor.” JMM Case Reports 4 (1): e005081.Link to the article

Kitt H, Lenney W, Gilchrist FJ. 2016. Two case reports of the successful eradication of new isolates of Burkholderia cepacia complex in children with cystic fibrosis. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 17:14. Link to the article

Regan KH, Bhatt J. 2014. Eradication therapy for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD009876. Link to the article

Iglesias A, Artiles I, Cabanillas JJ, Alvarez-Sala R, Prados C. 2014. Eradication of Burkholderia cepacia Using Inhaled Aztreonam Lysine in Two Patients with Bronchiectasis. Case Rep Pulmonol 2014:192146. Link to the article

Novel antibiotic and anti-infective molecules

Hogan AM, Scoffone VC, Makarov V, Gislason AS, Tesfu H, Stietz MS, Brassinga AKC, Domaratzki M, Li X, Azzalin A, Biggiogera M, Riabova O, Monakhova N, Chiarelli LR, Riccardi G, Buroni S, Cardona ST. 2018. Competitive Fitness of Essential Gene Knockdowns Reveals a Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Inhibitor of the Cell Division Protein FtsZ. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 62. Link to the article

Scoffone VC, Chiarelli LR, Makarov V, Brackman G, Israyilova A, Azzalin A, Forneris F, Riabova O, Savina S, Coenye T, Riccardi G, Buroni S. 2016. Discovery of new diketopiperazines inhibiting Burkholderia cenocepacia quorum sensing in vitro and in vivo. Sci Rep 6:32487.

Scoffone VC, Spadaro F, Udine C, Makarov V, Fondi M, Fani R, De Rossi E, Riccardi G, Buroni S. 2014. Mechanism of resistance to an antitubercular 2-thiopyridine derivative that is also active against Burkholderia cenocepacia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 58:2415–2417.

Antibiotic resistance

Diaz Caballero J, Clark ST, Wang PW, Donaldson SL, Coburn B, Tullis DE, Yau YCW, Waters VJ, Hwang DM, Guttman DS. 2018. A genome-wide association analysis reveals a potential role for recombination in the evolution of antimicrobial resistance in Burkholderia multivorans. PLoS Pathog 14:e1007453. Link to the article

Bernier SP, Son S, Surette MG. 2018. The Mla Pathway Plays an Essential Role in the Intrinsic Resistance of Burkholderia cepacia Complex Species to Antimicrobials and Host Innate Components. J Bacteriol 200. Link to the article

Gislason AS, Choy M, Bloodworth RAM, Qu W, Stietz MS, Li X, Zhang C, Cardona ST. 2017. Competitive Growth Enhances Conditional Growth Mutant Sensitivity to Antibiotics and Exposes a Two-Component System as an Emerging Antibacterial Target in Burkholderia cenocepacia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 61.

Papp-Wallace KM, Becka SA, Taracila MA, Zeiser ET, Gatta JA, LiPuma JJ, Bonomo RA. 2017. Exploring the Role of the Ω-Loop in the Evolution of Ceftazidime Resistance in the PenA β-Lactamase from Burkholderia multivorans, an Important Cystic Fibrosis Pathogen. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 61.

Tedesco P, Maida I, Palma Esposito F, Tortorella E, Subko K, Ezeofor CC, Zhang Y, Tabudravu J, Jaspars M, Fani R, de Pascale D. 2016. Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica). Mar Drugs 14.

Rhodes KA, Schweizer HP. 2016. Antibiotic resistance in Burkholderia species. Drug Resist Updat 28:82–90.

Horsley A, Jones AM, Lord R. 2016. Antibiotic treatment for Burkholderia cepacia complex in people with cystic fibrosis experiencing a pulmonary exacerbation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD009529.

Fraser-Pitt D, Mercer D, Lovie E, Robertson J, O’Neil D. 2016. Activity of Cysteamine against the Cystic Fibrosis Pathogen Burkholderia cepacia Complex. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 60:6200–6206.

Everaert A, Coenye T. 2016. Effect of β-Lactamase inhibitors on in vitro activity of β-Lactam antibiotics against Burkholderia cepacia complex species. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 5:44.

Hwang J, Kim HS. 2015. Cell Wall Recycling-Linked Coregulation of AmpC and PenB β-Lactamases through ampD Mutations in Burkholderia cenocepacia. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 59:7602–7610.


Cullen L, O’Connor A, McCormack S, Owens RA, Holt GS, Collins C, Callaghan M, Doyle S, Smith D, Schaffer K, Fitzpatrick DA, McClean S. 2018. The involvement of the low-oxygen-activated locus of Burkholderia cenocepacia in adaptation during cystic fibrosis infection. Sci Rep 8:13386. Link to the article

Silva IN, Pessoa FD, Ramires MJ, Santos MR, Becker JD, Cooper VS, Moreira LM. 2018. The OmpR Regulator of Burkholderia multivorans Controls Mucoid-to-Nonmucoid Transition and Other Cell Envelope Properties Associated with Persistence in the Cystic Fibrosis Lung. J Bacteriol 200. Link to the article

Lee AH-Y, Flibotte S, Sinha S, Paiero A, Ehrlich RL, Balashov S, Ehrlich GD, Zlosnik JEA, Mell JC, Nislow C. 2017. Phenotypic diversity and genotypic flexibility of Burkholderia cenocepacia during long-term chronic infection of cystic fibrosis lungs. Genome Res 27:650–662

Schaefers MM, Liao TL, Boisvert NM, Roux D, Yoder-Himes D, Priebe GP. 2017. An Oxygen-Sensing Two-Component System in the Burkholderia cepacia Complex Regulates Biofilm, Intracellular Invasion, and Pathogenicity. PLoS Pathog 13:e1006116.

Dennehy R, Romano M, Ruggiero A, Mohamed YF, Dignam SL, Mujica Troncoso C, Callaghan M, Valvano MA, Berisio R, McClean S. 2017. The Burkholderia cenocepacia peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein is involved in epithelial cell attachment and elicitation of inflammation. Cell Microbiol 19.

Bernier SP, Hum C, Li X, O’Toole GA, Magarvey N, Surette MG. 2017. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-derived rhamnolipids and other detergents modulate colony morphotype and motility in the Burkholderia cepacia complex. J Bacteriol.

McClean S, Healy ME, Collins C, Carberry S, O’Shaughnessy L, Dennehy R, Adams Á, Kennelly H, Corbett JM, Carty F, Cahill LA, Callaghan M, English K, Mahon BP, Doyle S, Shinoy M. 2016. Linocin and OmpW Are Involved in Attachment of the Cystic Fibrosis-Associated Pathogen Burkholderia cepacia Complex to Lung Epithelial Cells and Protect Mice against Infection. Infect Immun 84:1424–1437.

Burkholderia and lung transplant

Goodlet KJ, Nailor MD, Omar A, Huang JL, LiPuma JJ, Walia R, Tokman S. 2018. Successful Lung Re-transplant in a Patient with Cepacia Syndrome due to Burkholderia ambifaria. J Cyst Fibros Off J Eur Cyst Fibros Soc. Link to the article

Snell G, Reed A, Stern M, Hadjiliadis D. 2017. The evolution of lung transplantation for cystic fibrosis: A 2017 update. J Cyst Fibros Off J Eur Cyst Fibros Soc 16:553–564.

Dupont L. 2017. Lung transplantation in cystic fibrosis patients with difficult to treat lung infections. Curr Opin Pulm Med.

Molecular Biology and Biotechnology

Agnoli K, Freitag R, Gomes MC, Jenul C, Suppiger A, Mannweiler O, Frauenknecht C, Janser D, Vergunst AC, Eberl L. 2017. The Use of Synthetic Hybrid Strains to Determine the Role of Replicon 3 in Virulence of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex. Appl Environ Microbiol.

Wong YC, Ghany MAE, Naeem R, Lee KW, Tan YG, Pain A, Nathan S. 2016. Candidate Essential Genes in Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 Identified by Genome-Wide TraDIS. Front Microbiol 7:1288.

Yoder-Himes DR, Chain PS, Zhu Y, Wurtzel O, Rubin EM, Tiedje JM, Sorek R. 2009. Mapping the Burkholderia cenocepacia niche response via high-throughput sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3976–3981.

Holden MT, Seth-Smith HM, Crossman LC, Sebaihia M, Bentley SD, Cerdeno-Tarraga AM, Thomson NR, Bason N, Quail MA, Sharp S, Cherevach I, Churcher C, Goodhead I, Hauser H, Holroyd N, Mungall K, Scott P, Walker D, White B, Rose H, Iversen P, Mil-Homens D, Rocha EP, Fialho AM, Baldwin A, Dowson C, Barrell BG, Govan JR, Vandamme P, Hart CA, Mahenthiralingam E, Parkhill J. 2009. The genome of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315, an epidemic pathogen of cystic fibrosis patients. J Bacteriol 191:261–277.

Yoder-Himes DR, Chain PS, Zhu Y, Wurtzel O, Rubin EM, Tiedje JM, Sorek R. 2009. Mapping the Burkholderia cenocepacia niche response via high-throughput sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:3976–3981.

Flannagan RS, Linn T, Valvano MA. 2008. A system for the construction of targeted unmarked gene deletions in the genus Burkholderia. Environ Microbiol 10:1652–1660.

Cardona ST, Mueller C, Valvano MA. 2006. Identification of essential operons in Burkholderia cenocepacia with a rhamnose inducible promoter. Appl Environ Microbiol 72:2547–2555.

Microbial Interactions

Almeida C, Silva Pereira C, Gonzalez-Menendez V, Bills G, Pascual J, Sánchez-Hidalgo M, Kehraus S, Genilloud O. 2018. Unveiling concealed functions of endosymbiotic bacteria harboured in the Ascomycota Stachylidium bicolor. Appl Environ Microbiol. Link to the article